One of the most versatile, aggressive, and effective mobile land weapon system platforms that make the difference between parties fighting each other on the battlefield is Tank. It makes significant damages at the early stage of the battle. Tanks are enabled to break the resistance of the enemy effectively. By the definition, a Tank is an armored fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat. The major portions of the Tank are,
Hull includes the body of the Tank. The turret includes the head of the Tank where the weapons are mounted. Gun is the large and longest barrel that is treated as a primary weapon or main battery of the Tank and it sticks out from the turret. The track is a solid chain made of steel plates. The track ensures the movement of the Tank. If the track breaks down, the Tank would be stuck and become unable to move. On the battlefield, the opponent always targets the track to cut-off. So, despite being made of heavy steel, the track is the sensitive part of the Tank. The use of tracks rather than wheels in the Tank ensures well functionality especially in adverse conditions such as mud and also allows to be positioned on the battlefield in advantageous locations.
Since the Cold War main battle tanks (MBTs) have evolved from being simple and light to heavy, modernized, and highly mobile, with advancements in weaponry and countermeasures. There are classes of tanks: some being larger and very heavily armored having high caliber guns, while others are smaller, lightly armored, and equipped with a smaller caliber and lighter gun. These smaller tanks move over terrain with speed and agility and can perform a reconnaissance role in addition to engaging enemy targets. The smaller, faster tank would not normally engage in battle with a larger, heavily armored tank, except for some tactical reason. Modern Tanks are effective mobile land weapon systems that play a vital role on the battlefield. It incorporates large cannon having a long barrel called a tank gun and also being ornated by supplementary machine guns, anti-tank guided missiles, rockets, etc. Almost every modern tank is made in a heavily armored fashion. This not only protects the vehicle but also acts as a safety measure for the crew, weapons, and propulsion systems. These features enable the tank to perform effectively in a variety of intense combat situations with the help of its powerful gun and simultaneously, strategical defensive mood. As it can change its position frequently and smoothly on even or un-even land, it could be devastating for the opponent. The agility of the Tank creates a horrible situation for the opponent.
This Russian next-generation tank is treated as the most powerful armor vehicle and also a threat for the enemy for its effective capability to attack, enemy tracking, and detection. At the same time, it does also provide significant safety to the crews to survive under attack. T-14 is the smartest tank to attack the battlefield. We shall now go through to discuss some main features of this fantastic tank.
- Length 35ft
- Width 11ft
- Engine 2000 hp (max.) Diesel driven
- Speed 90 km/h
- Range 500 km
T-14 accommodates 3 crews; the commander, the driver, and the gunner.
The armament of T-14 is the two 2A82 and 125mm smoothbore cannon by replacing the previous Soviet 2A46M cannon. The firing rate is 10-12 rounds per minute. The left side casing ejection port for the 125mm gun with a maximum effective penetration range of 8 km with ATGMs. The detection range of the tank is more than 5km in daylight and at least 3.5km at night through thermal emerging channels. The gunner’s sight optical channel is equipped at least 4 times and 12 times optical zoom. The LASER range finder has a few radical maximum ranges of 7.5km. The crew has a high definition camera with 3600 rotating capability. The 2A82 and 125mm cannons can fire high-powered ammunitions including guided missiles, shaped charges, and other types of ammunition. The gun is capable of firing guided missiles like 9M119M1 Invar-M which has an effective range of 100m to 5km and engages low flying objects like helicopters. These missiles can be used through air defense. The secondary armament consists of 12.7mm Kord MG with 300 rounds in 7.62mmPecheneg PKP machine gun of 1000 rounds. All the guns are remotely controlled. Besides, 1000 rounds are kept separately on the commander’s side. The T-14 is powered by the CHTG12000360 diesel engine delivering 1500hp. The engine is also electronically controlled.
The T-14 has a 12-speed automatic gearbox with a top speed of 80-90kmph and a range of 500km. The transmission might be an electronically controlled mechanical gearbox with external reverse and multiplier gears giving the tank echo forward and reverse gear range. Other sources include hydrostatic transmission. The transmission is to join with the engine into a single unit that can be swapped out in the field in just under 30 minutes.
The T-14 armata is anticipated to provide up to STANAG 4569 Level 5 protection. The active protection system (APS) aboard the tank can detect, track, and engage incoming anti-tank munitions. Powered by an A-85-3A turbocharged diesel engine, the tank offers a maximum speed of 90km/h and a range of 500km.
As far as protection is concerned, Hull is equipped with a marginal armor system made of steel, ceramics, and composite materials. This enhances the significant survivability of the crew. The crew capsule is isolated from the automatic holder and ammunition to increase the survivability from explosions. The tank is anticipated to offer highly protective features from the attack. Its forward portion is covered by reactive armor. It also offers effective protection from enemy attacks through RPG, Propelled grenades, and rockets. The tank also offers active and passive armor i.e. the nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. The automatic fire suppression system and smoke grenade discharger enhance further survivability of the crew. T-14 has its protection system like guided missiles, APGM (Autonomous Precision Guided Munition), rocket, and RPGs. The T-14 is protected by an internal armor capsule which is more than 900mm increases safety and survivability as well. The turret is equipped with a highly sophisticated reactive armor system on the front, side, and top.
Target Detection Capability
The tank causes its main upgraded computerized control system which monitors the state and functions of all tank modules. In a battle situation, the software can analyze threats and either suggest or automatically take action to eliminate them. The tank features APS (active protection system) includes a wave RADAR to detect, track, and intercept incoming anti-tank ammunitions both kinetic energy penetrations and tandem energy. Currently, the maximum speed of the interceptable target is 1700m/s. With projectile, feature increases that up to 3000m/s. According to new sources, it protects the tank from all sides. The sensors having four panels mounted on the turret sides and able to rotate 3600. This ensures proper vision all-around.
The specifications of the T-90S modernized tank include;
Weight- 47.5 tones
Length- 9.63m which is equivalent to 31ft 7inch
Width- 3.78m that equivalent to 12ft 5inch
Height- 2.22m which equivalent to 7ft 3inch
There are 3 crews operate at the time of operation.
Armor- It is made of steel composite reactive blend W/ERA suite
Main armament- 125mm smoothbore gun with ATGM capability
Secondary armament- 12.7mm NSV heavy machine gun
840hp (618kw) for V-84 12-cyl
950hp (736kw) for V-92 12-cyl
1250hp (930kw) for V-96 12-cyl
Suspension- Torsion bar
Operational range- 550-700 km
speed- 60-65 km/h
The section of the tank is, Hull, Main gun, Roadweels, Turret, Skirt armor which protects the chain from enemy fire, Tracks, Exhaust pipe, and the fuel tanks are located at back.
The Glacis ERA is placed in the front. There are 3 storage boxes available on the left side of the tank. Driver
s periscopes are placed just behind Glacis ERA. The Gun Mantlet is placed behind the drivers periscope. The position of the commander`s sight and main sight are at the right and left sides of the back part of the tank.
The enhanced combat potential of the new tank T-90 results in a powerfully armed new combat module. The highly automated fire control system from its integrated multi-level protection, the improved chassis, the use of the latest generation digital communication facilities, and the implementation of the battle interaction control system is the basic eye-catching features of the T-90 modernized tank. In terms of firepower, T-90 has made its position in the level of the modern battle module. The searching capabilities, speed of target detection, accuracy, effective firing range have made T-90 the most competitive module in modern warfare.
The other sections are accomplished by combining,
- Elevated remote-controlled machine gun mount (125-MM 2A46M gun capable of missile launching)
- Modernize guided weapon system (co-axial 7.62-MM machine gun)
The most advanced technologies and finest engineering concepts and long-range analysis applied while making the enhanced 125MM gun. Now, we are concentrating on some special features of the T-90S.
Higher Fire Accuracy:
The improvements have provided for higher precession and fire accuracy due to the new constructive solutions and technologies introduced at the production level or stage.
High Rate of Effective Fire Range:
The gun has a higher rate of effective fire range with conventional ammunition. With the help of APDS projectiles, the range is up to 2700m and it is the best result among other tanks, till now.
Gun Barrel Bend Sensor:
Besides engineering solutions, the 2A46M is equipped with a barrel bend detector to increase fire accuracy. This device registers the bending of the barrel resulting from environmental conditions and the interior heat inside the barrel upon firing and enters the correction of data to the fire control system.
This feature is highly effective at the time of war and rarely seen in other modernized tanks. It can fire constantly up to 8 rounds per minute by the automatic loader. The T-90S tank uses,
HEF- range 12km
Guided missiles- range 5km
APDS- range 3km
to destroy armored vehicles, concrete structures as well as manpower. The Guided Missiles (GM) with shaped charge warhead hits armored and heavily protected small size targets with high accuracy. The high explosive fragmentation shells are essential to combat manpower, artillery, and field engineering facilities.
Guided Weapon System:
The guided weapon system can effectively hit targets at a distance of up to 5km. The missiles are released from the gun missile launcher is LASER guided. The firing accuracy is achieved by turning on the automatic target tracking function in the fire control system.
Independent of the Gunner Firing Channel for Commander:
T-90S has an extra firing channel which is made up of a remotely controlled machine gun knob. The commander can aim to fire accurately staying in the tank without interrupting the activities of the gunner.
The machine becomes stabilize at the time of the elevation of the tank. Therefore, it destroys targets accurately. The 7.62mm co-axial machine gun mounted on the turret having 2 magazines of 800 rounds of ammunition. Each magazine holds 400 rounds of ammunition. So, the necessity of reloading ammunition is minimum or not at all needed.
Multi-Channel Fire Control System:
The upgraded fire control system available at the commander’s side, gunner side, and parallel side. The gunner’s sight has a sighting and thermal channel, built-in LASER range finder, and missile control LASER channel. The sight enables the gunner to detect and accurately hit targets under any conditions.
This section has significantly been advanced. It plays an effective role in target detection, firing, and combat management. Commander’s panoramic sight includes; Thermal channel and TV channel and a built-in LASER range finder. It provides 3600 target detection and tracking.
External Video Observation System:
It ensures commander all-around surveillance. The 4 TV cameras can work in low light conditions. 8 prismatic devices increase the commander’s visual and searching capabilities.
Digital Image Processing Equipment:
The image quality of the commander’s viewing device is enhanced due to the system of digital image processing of the video signals from the Thermal and TV observation channels. Therefore, the T-90S commander can recognize the target at distances of up to 5000m. Besides, the equipment performs functions of automatic target tracking. The targets can also be tracked by the commander and the gunner at the same time.
Parallel TV Sight:
T-90S is equipped with the TV parallel sight shared by the gunner and the commander. If the primary vision device damages, they still become able to have visual due to parallel TV sight.
American M1A2 Abram tank consists manly by caterpillar tracks, the turret and the engine is placed at the back part of the tank. The turret can rotate 3600 and accommodate 4 crews underneath it. M1 Abrams tank was commissioned in 1980 and named against the honor of General Creighton W. Abrams Jr. He was the commander in the Vietnam war. The ideality of this tank is harder to hit on the battlefield. The angling side of the tank has made it special to deflect the attack from the enemy fire. The spacious area provides the crews to spend 100 hours inside it while in operation. Among several versions, the major versions of the Abram tank are, M1, M1A1, and M1A2. We shall talk about M1A2 in this article.
All the versions are very similar-looking but differ in terms of electronics, weapon systems, and weight. The new versions are heavier and slower but having increased technology. The Abrams M1A2 has been recognized as an effective combat-proven main battle tank and is primarily being used by the US Army. The main features are as follows:
- Height 8ft
- Length 32ft
- Width 12ft
- Weight is almost 68 US tons which are almost equivalent to the weight of 35 cars
- Speed is up to 42mph
- Fuel capacity is just below 500 gallon
- Abrams M1A2 has got manually loaded 120mm XM256 smoothbore cannon, which can fire a range of Nato ammunition against armored vehicles, infantry, and low-flying aircraft.
- armed with two 7.62mm M240 machine guns and a .50 cal M2 machine gun
- can store 42 rounds of 120mm, 11,400 rounds of 7.62mm, 900 rounds of 50 caliber ammunition, 32 screening grenades, and 210 rounds of 5.56mm ammunition.
- The exterior of Abrams M1A2 has integrated heavy composite armor and steel-encased depleted uranium armor at the forward hull and turret which offers a high level of protection to the crews.
- The caterpillar tracks are made of steel with replaceable rubber pads
Caterpillar and the Gun
There are 7 roadwheels on each side of the tank. The wheel which pulls the rest is placed at the back. This one is the only one powered by the engine. If accidentally any portion of the track breaks, the tools and the spare are available to repair. The engine is placed at the very back of the tank. To repair, the entire engine can be lifted out of the tank. The tank has got an AGT-1500 engine which can run on several different fuels. But, most of the time it runs by jet fuel. The tank has got a turbine engine which is seen on the airplane. There is a communication device attached to the back part of the tank. So, the soldiers can communicate with the crews inside. To protect the caterpillar tracks, Side Skirts available on the sides covering the tracks. It can be opened for easy maintenance. The turret can rotate 3600 in only 9 seconds. The tank has a 120mm M256 smoothbore cannon. This means the shells and ammunitions are 120mm (4.7inch). The shell speed is 3500mph. It can hit the target 2 miles away. The automatic stabilizer allows the gun to lock the targets even going on an un-even surface. The driver of the tank doesn’t need to stop every time the tank needs to fire. The tank can even spin in place whether the main gun remains locked on target.
There is a coaxial machine gun, and on the top, there is one more machine gun to operate. On both sides of the tank, there are Smoke Grenade Launchers. This creates visual complexity for the enemy during a combat situation.
There are two hatches on the top. One is the commander’s hatch and the other is the loader’s hatch. Inside the turret, there are 3 out of 4 crews. The gunner’s position is at the very right and the commander sits behind the gunner. The loader’s position is at the left of the main gun. When the turret rotates, all 3 crew members also rotate and the underneath is called turret baskets. The seal between the turret and the hull is so good to protect the crews inside in the case of chemical and nuclear warfare.
Through viewing ports, the commander can have a visual of 3600. On the back of the turret, the shells are stored in a large compartment for the gunner. The gunner manually loads the shell and needs to perform his action as quickly as possible during a combat situation. The driver sits at the very front of the hull. He has got a visual option of 1200 through periscopes. The driver enters his sitting position through the hatch on the hull.
If any of the ammunition is ignited, the ammunition goes up and the crew members become safe. This is how it has been designed.